Welcome to EWSNet’s documentation!¶
This is the official code documentation for the Early Warning Signal Network (EWSNet), a deep learning model trained using simulated stochastic time series data for anticipating transitions and regime shifts in complex dynamical systems.
Inference & Finetuning using Pretrained EWSNet¶

class
src.inference.ewsnet.
EWSNet
(ensemble=1, weight_dir=None, prefix='', suffix='.h5')[source]¶ This is a wrapper class to load pretrained EWSNet models and perform inference on custom data points. To instanatiate this inference wrapper, you need to have pretrained weights stored in a local directory. Supports ensembling multiple models for increased reliability and robustness.
Initializing the EWSNet wrapper.
 Parameters
ensemble (int, optional) – A variable indicating the no. of models to ensemble and average predictions over.
weight_dir (str, optional) – Path to the directory to load the weights from.
prefix (str, optional) – Prefix for the weight filenames
suffix (str, optional) – Suffix for the weight filenames
Attributes
 model
A list of size ensemble holding the corresponding models, that are instances of type model class:tf.keras.Model
Note
Note that the model weights should be saved as $_PREFIX_$i$_SUFFIX_ where i corresponds to the index of the model in the ensemble.
Note
Once loading of the weights is successfull, use the predict() function to test custom time series data using EWSNet.

finetune
(X, y, freeze_feature_extractor=True, learning_rate=5e05, batch_size=512, tune_epochs=5)[source]¶ Function to finetune EWSNet on a custom dataset. By default finetunes all models in the ensemble based on the given data and set of parameters.
 Parameters
X (np.array, required) – The data points (univariate timeseries) to finetune EWSNet on. Dimension  (N x D) or (N x 1 x D) where N denotes the no. of samples and D denotes the no. of time steps.
y (np.array, required) – The target labels corresponding to the data points (X). Dimension  (N, ) or (N x 1) where N denotes the no. of samples.
freeze_feature_extractor (bool, optional) – A boolean flag that determines the part of the network to be finetuned. When set to False. the entire network is finetuned. When set to True, only the fully connected layers are finetuned and the feature extraction blocks are frozen.
learning_rate (float, optional) – The learning rate for finetuning the models.
batch_size (int, optional) – The batch size for finetuning the models.
tune_epochs (int, optional) – The no. of epochs for finetuning the models.
Data Generation and Preprocessing¶

src.generate_data.
model1
(n_max, c, c_max, r, b, M, corr)¶ Generate multiple stochastic time series by solving the following differential equation using the Euler Maruyama method:
\(\frac{dN}{dt} = rN(1\frac{N}{K})\frac{cN^{2}}{b^{2}+N^{2}}\).
The values of sigma and k are varied within a range in order to add variability across time series to generate time series with increased variablility.
Change the value of corr to generate time series when system is perturbed with colored noise of different amplitude.
 Parameters
k – carrying capacity
r – maximum growth rate
c – maximum grazing rate
b – half saturation constant
M – Number of time series to be generated for the given set of parameter values
n_max – number of timesteps
corr – Correlation time
x0 – initial condition.
Note
Modify the stochastic differential equation to generate time series data from other models
Data Loading¶

src.utils.generic_utils.
load_dataset_at
(index, normalize_timeseries=False, verbose=True, is_timeseries=True) > (<builtin function array>, <builtin function array>)[source]¶ Loads a Univaraite Dataset indexed by utils.constants. The dataset is loaded as a pandas DataFrame and preprocessed to replace missing values with zero.
Note
The dataset should be such that the first column corresponds to the target class label. i.e a dataset consisting of N time series of length T would be a dataframe of dimension Nx(T+1) where the first column corresponds to the class labels.
 Parameters
index – Integer index, set inside utils.constants that refers to the dataset.
normalize_timeseries – Bool / Integer. Determines whether to normalize the timeseries. If False, does not normalize the time series. If True / int not equal to 2, performs standard samplewise znormalization. If 2: Performs full dataset znormalization.
verbose – Whether to describe the dataset being loaded.
 Returns
A tuple of shape (X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test, is_timeseries). For legacy reasons, is_timeseries is always True.

src.utils.generic_utils.
plot_roc
(y_test, y_score, figname='none', n_classes=3)[source]¶ Plots the ROC Curve given the target and the prediction probabilities
 Parameters
y_test – The target class labels
y_score – The models output prediction probabilities
figname – Name of the figure for saving.
n_classes – Number of classes.
Model Training and Evaluation¶

src.model_training.exp_utils.
evaluate_model
(model: tensorflow.python.keras.engine.training.Model, dataset_id, dataset_prefix, batch_size=128, test_data_subset=None, cutoff=None, normalize_timeseries=False, error_analysis=False)[source]¶ Evaluates a given Keras Model on the provided dataset.
 Parameters
model – A Keras Model.
dataset_id – Integer id representing the dataset index containd in utils/constants.py.
dataset_prefix – Name of the dataset. Used for weight saving.
batch_size – Size of each batch for evaluation.
test_data_subset – Optional integer id to subset the test set. To be used if the test set evaluation time is significantly.
cutoff – Optional integer which slices of the first cutoff timesteps from the input signal.
normalize_timeseries –
Bool / Integer. Determines whether to normalize the timeseries.
If False, does not normalize the time series. If True / int not equal to 2, performs standard samplewise
znormalization.
If 2: Performs full dataset znormalization.
 Returns
The test set accuracy of the model.

src.model_training.exp_utils.
train_model
(model: tensorflow.python.keras.engine.training.Model, dataset_id, dataset_prefix, epochs=50, batch_size=128, val_subset=5000, cutoff=None, normalize_timeseries=False, learning_rate=1e05, prediction=False)[source]¶ Trains a provided Model, given a dataset id.
 Parameters
model – A Keras Model.
dataset_id – Integer id representing the dataset index containd in utils/constants.py.
dataset_prefix – Name of the dataset. Used for weight saving.
epochs – Number of epochs to train.
batch_size – Size of each batch for training.
val_subset – Optional integer id to subset the test set. To be used if the test set evaluation time significantly surpasses training time per epoch.
cutoff – Optional integer which slices of the first cutoff timesteps from the input signal.
normalize_timeseries – Bool / Integer. Determines whether to normalize the timeseries. If False, does not normalize the time series. If True / int not equal to 2, performs standard samplewise znormalization. If 2: Performs full dataset znormalization.
learning_rate – Initial learning rate.
 Returns
The trained model.